每个孩子都应该有一台自己的笔记本电脑

——访秘鲁教育部首席教育技术执行官奥斯卡·贝塞拉

 

本刊特约记者  任友群  本刊特约通讯员  侯承宇

 

【编者按】2002年,被誉为“互联网教父”的美国麻省理工学院尼古拉斯·尼葛洛庞帝教授在柬埔寨一个偏远的村庄亲自做了关于笔记本电脑如何改变儿童以及他们家庭成员的生活的实验,这为很多后续实践项目埋下了伏笔,即如果全世界每个儿童都有一台自己的电脑,他们可以被发掘出什么潜力?可以解决什么问题?这些问题最终促成了“每个孩子都应该有一台自己的笔记本电脑”(One Laptop Per Child,简称OLPC)以及XO笔记本电脑①计划。OLPC面对的是广大发展中国家中几乎接触不到教育的20亿贫困儿童,目的是为他们提供一种学习的手段。当儿童渴望知识时,提供给属于他们自己的XO笔记本电脑,就相当于为他们打开一扇通往世界的窗户,让他们去获取大量的信息,同样也给了他们与他人交流联系的途径和通往美好未来的跳板。很多国家和地区参与了这项计划,如巴西、泰国(在2006年泰国军事政变之后该计划被取消)、埃及、柬埔寨、多米尼加、哥斯达黎加、突尼斯、阿根廷、委内瑞拉、尼日利亚、利比亚、乌拉圭、秘鲁以及乌干达等。在这些国家中,秘鲁的OLPC项目取得了明显的成效。

本期我们访谈的嘉宾就是目前负责全世界最大的一项OLPC项目的奥斯卡·贝塞拉(Oscar Becerra)博士,他将向我们介绍OLPC项目在秘鲁实施的背景、方法、效果、问题和前景,以及如何在已有条件下更好地实现教育的使命,即利用技术、方法,让学生学会更自由地对他们所处环境进行思考并做出反应。贝塞拉,心理学博士,现任秘鲁教育部首席教育技术执行官,教育信息技术相关问题国际顾问和发言人,并兼任圣马丁大学(Universidad San Martin de Porres,简称USMP)教育质量研究所教授。贝塞拉曾任圣伊格纳西奥·德·罗约拉大学(Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola)学术主任、IBM公司拉美区域教育部门负责人。作为一名训练有素的心理咨询师,贝塞拉还被任命为位于秘鲁首都利马的圣马科斯大学(Universidad de San Marcos)精神病理学的精神分析心理治疗法硕士课程副教授。贝塞拉毕业于秘鲁国立工程大学(National University of Engineering in Peru)并获得物理学学士学位,在哈特福德大学(University of Hartford)和圣马丁大学获得教育计算与技术的硕士学位,在利马工商管理研究所获得工商管理的毕业证书。

秘鲁,全称秘鲁共和国,是南美洲西部的一个国家,北邻厄瓜多尔和哥伦比亚,东与巴西和玻利维亚接壤,南接智利,西濒太平洋。秘鲁是南美洲国家联盟的成员国,面积128.5万平方公里,安第斯山纵贯其南北,山地占全国面积的1/3。秘鲁是传统的农矿业国,经济水平居拉美中上游,但经济发展的成果未能惠及广大下层民众,贫富分化等问题仍然明显。秘鲁现行教育体制为:学前教育12年,小学6年,中学6年,大学5年。2004年教育经费88.97亿新索尔(约合27亿美元),占国家预算的18.4%。2005年秘鲁全国15岁以上文盲总数约为278.1万人,占全国人口的10.3%,其中大部分是妇女和农村人口。

【关键词】OLPC;秘鲁贫困儿童;技术

【中图分类号】G434

【文献标识码】D

【文章编号】1007-2179(2011)01-0004-06

【作者简介】任友群,博士,教授,博士生导师,华东师范大学课程与教学研究所研究员、课程与教学系教授(yqren@admin.ecnu.edu.cn);侯承宇,华东师范大学课程与教学系硕士研究生。

 

OLPC and Systemic Reform in Education

——Interview with Oscar Becerra

 

Journalist  REN Youqun & HOU Chengyu

 

Abstract: In 2002, MIT Professor Nicholas Negroponte experienced first-hand how connected laptops transformed the lives of children and their families in a remote Cambodian village. A seed was planted: If every child in the world had access to a computer, what potential could be unlocked? What problems could be solved? These questions eventually led to the foundation of One Laptop Per Child, and the creation of the XO laptop. OLPC's mission is to provide a means for learning, selfexpression, and exploration to the nearly two billion children of the developing world with little or no access to education. While children are by nature eager for knowledge, giving children their very own connected XO laptop, we are giving them a window to the outside world, access to vast amounts of information, a way to connect with each other, and a springboard into their future. Many countries and regions participated in the program, such as Brazil, Thailand (canceled after the military coup in 2006), Egypt, U.S. (Massachusetts and Maine), Cambodia, Dominica, Costarica, Tunisia, Argentina, Venezuela, Nigeria, Libya, Uruguay, Perú, and Uganda. Among these countries, Perú has achieved remarkable results.

Oscar Becerra is Chief Educational Technology Officer at the Ministry of Education of Perú, and is responsible for the largest "One Laptop per Child" project worldwide. He is also an international consultant and public speaker on issues related to Information Technology in Education. With a Ph.D. degree in Psychology, he is a research professor at University of San Martin de Porres (USMP) (Institute for Educational Quality). Prior to his current position, Oscar Becerra was Academic Director for San Ignacio de Loyola University and managed the Education sector for IBM Corporation in Latin America where he worked for 22 years. As a trained psychotherapist, Oscar Becerra was appointed associate professor of Psychopathology at the Master's Program in Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy, Universidad de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. Mr. Becerra has his B.A. in Physics form the National University of Engineering in Peru and Master's in Educational Computing and Technology from the University of Hartford and USMP. He also holds a certificate in Business Administration from the Graduate School of Business Administration in Lima.

Perú, the Republic of Perú, is a country in western South America. Its neighbours include: Ecuador and Colombia on the north, Brazil and Bolivia on the east, Chile on the south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west. As a member state of the South American Union, it has 1.285 million square kilometers. The Andes Mountain Ranges stretch from the north to the south, and mountainous area accounts for 1/3 of its total area. Perú is a traditional Agricultural and mining country, and its economic development is in the middle and upper reaches of Latin America. However, its economic development has failed to benefit the majority of lower classes, and there are huge gaps between the rich and the poor. The current education system in Perú is: 1-2 years for preschool education, 6 years for primary schools, 6 years for middle school, and 5 years for university. 8,897,000,000 New Sol (about 2.7 Billion dollars) was spent in education in 2004, which is 18.4% of the national budget. The number of illiterates above the age of 15 was 2.78 million in 2005, 10.3% of the country's population. Most of them are women and reside in rural areas.

Key words: OLPC; poor children in Perú; technology

 

 

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