认识美国绩效技术

——从对美国绩效技术领域相关人士的访谈谈起

 

方圆媛1  刘美凤2

 

1. 中央电化教育馆资源服务部,北京 1000312. 北京师范大学 教育技术学院,北京 100875

 

【摘要】本研究通过利用电子邮件、电话和网络聊天软件三类工具,围绕绩效技术领域的定义与范围、与相关领域的关系、社会认可程度、实践与研究现状、相关人才必备能力等几方面,对美国具有教育技术背景,且活跃在企业、高校绩效技术领域的19位人士,包括美国教育技术领域先驱托马斯·M·树文(Thomas M.Schwen)教授、美国绩效技术奠基人罗杰·考夫曼(Roger Kaufman)教授、美国著名的绩效分析专家艾利森·罗塞特(Allison Rossett)教授等进行了访谈。透过他们的经历和观点,从一个侧面了解了美国绩效技术领域,从而获得对其更真切的认识。通过访谈我们发现:几乎所有被访者都认同绩效技术起源于对教育技术用教学和培训来提高组织绩效的超越,并认为系统化方法是绩效技术的优势;绩效技术在美国的研究与实践发展较快,获得了美国社会较多的认可;绩效技术专业人员需要具有系统方法与思维,具备绩效分析和评估能力、人际交流能力,了解经济市场和企业运作知识,并具备宽广的知识背景;要培养有关人才,可以开设“系统思维”、“需求评估/绩效解析”、“绩效设计与证实/绩效改进”、“评估(评价方法论)”等相关课程。

【关键词】美国;绩效技术领域;访谈

【中图分类号】G40.057

【文献标识码】A

【文章编号】1007-2179(2011)01-0097-06

【作者简介】方圆媛,硕士,中央电化教育馆资源服务部;刘美凤,教授,博士生导师,北京师范大学教育学部教育技术学院,研究方向:教育技术基本理论、学科教学设计、绩效技术、教育信息化(mfliu@bnu.edu.cn)。

 

A Glimpse at Human Performance Technology (HPT) in the U.S.

—— Interview with HPT Professionals in America

 

FANG Yuanyuan1 & LIU Meifeng2

1. Department of Resource Service, National Center of Educational Technology, Beijing 100031,China; 

2. School of Educational Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875,China

 

Abstract: Through in-depth interviews with selected human performance technology experts in the U.S., this article addresses major issues in HPT, such as 'definition and realm', 'relationship with relative fields', 'extent of social recognition', 'status-quo of practice and research', and 'the musthave competencies of HPT professionals'. Experts interviewed are professionals with educational technology background, including Thomas M. Schwen (one of the pioneers in Instructional System Instruction), Roger Kaufman and Allison Rossett (founders of Human Performance Technology). The interviews were conducted through E-mail, telephone, and Skype, and MSN. These experts' experiences and viewpoints expose us to the HPT field in the U.S., and provide us with insider scoops of this important field. Almost all interviewees agree that HPT originates from instructional technology's efforts in improving performance through instruction and training, and systemic approaches are the most important advantages of HPT. They also point out that research and practice of HPT has developed rapidly in the U.S., and has gain much recognition in recent years. In order to be successful, HPT professionals need to be equipped with knowledge of system thinking, economic market, and business operation. They also need to have the competencies of performance analysis and evaluation, interpersonal skills, and broad knowledge background. To train new HPT professionals, the following courses are needed: system thinking, needs assessment, performance analysis, performance design and validation, performance improvement, evaluation methods, and so on.

Key words: the U.S.; human performance technology; interview

 

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