开放教育的本性:教育家的解放与学习者的自由*

 

李明华

 

(华东师范大学公共管理学院,上海200062

 

【摘要】高等教育正在不可阻挡地走向大众化,而全世界却仍然用精英模式办大学,其结果是,精英大学与大众化大学间的不平等日益加剧,而大众化大学的教育质量却远不如精英大学。本文提出一个大众化的办学模式,这种新的大学有三个最基本的组织:一个是学校物质设施及服务的供给者,简称为“学校教育物质设施当局”;第二个是提供教育项目的组织,可以是教育家个人或他们的自由联合;第三个是在校园内部的教育市场管理机构。这就是大学的物质资本与人力资本分离,使得合格的教育家个人或他们的自由联合体可以自由地通过租借或其他办法获得使用大学的物质资本来自由地办学。从此,教育家办学就不再受制于资本。由于办学者间的竞争,学生获得充分的教育项目和课程选择的自由。经一定程序认定为合格的教育家可以做学历教育独立导师,像孔夫子一样,可以自己招本科生、研究生,甚至博士生。如此,教育家获得办学的自由,而学生则获得充分自由竞争的利益,即选择的自由和在给定公共财务限制下更高的教育质量。本研究运用新制度经济学分析后得到的预测是,网络发展导致的教务管理的自动化必然使得大学这个教学组织用市场替代大学内部的管理。

【关键词】开放大学;大学组织;教育市场;终身学习

【中图分类号】G640

【文献标识码】A

【文章编号】1007-2179(2011)05-0020-09

【作者简介】李明华,博士,副教授,华东师范大学公共管理学院(minghuali1@gmail.com)。

*基金项目: 本文系国家自然科学基金项目“高等教育认证制度的社会选择和效率理论研究”(编号:70973036)成果之一。

 

The Nature of Open Education:Emancipation of

Educators and Freedom of Learners

 

LI Minghua

 

(School of Public Administration, East China Normal University,

Shanghai 200062,China)

 

Abstract: Higher education inevitably serves the general public, but most universities in the world still operate with the model for elite education. And this discrepancy results in inequalities between the elite universities and the mass ones. For example, the elite universities have far stronger financial positions and better instructors. This paper suggests a worldwide reform of higher education by separating physical capital from human capital at universities. This way, all the qualified educators will be allowed to provide degree programs in their own names. Such a university will have three basic independent organizations: 1) the one that owns and/or manages the university's physical capitals such as campuses, buildings, and equipments, 2) the one that provides educational programs organized by qualified educators who are human capitals, and 3) the university education market administration organization that oversees all campus activities. All qualified educators whose statuses are verified via a certain accreditation process should be free to offer degree programs at all levels of higher education. This will free educators from the need for physical capital investment while offering higher education, and all the students will have more access to education programs and courses. As a result, the competition of educational market will be more efficient and will lead to better higher education with lower costs. This paper applies the new institutional economics as the theoretical level for the new model of university creation.

Key words:open university; university organization; education market;lifelong learning

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