21世纪:大学课堂向何处去?

——“太极学堂”的理念与实践探索

 

桑新民1  李曙华2  谢阳斌1

 

1.南京大学 教育研究院,江苏南京 210093

2.南京大学 哲学系,江苏南京 210093

 

【摘要】传统课堂教学模式的改革是大学教学创新发展绕不过去的壁垒,大学课堂向何处去?这是21世纪大学创新发展必须回答的时代难题和攻坚战。本文对工业文明土壤中产生的传统课堂进行了深刻剖析,对当代大学改革前沿涌现的课程创新、课堂创新之典型个案进行了深层次评介,揭示了当今世界范围内传统课堂向高效学堂转型的历史潮流和大趋势。作者基于对信息时代大学学习方式创新的长期实践和理论研究成果,继承和发扬中华传统文化与教育智慧,融会东西方大学精神,吸纳当代非线性科学理念与方法论,提出了“太极学堂”这一新理念,主张在网络课程与现实课程、学习主体与学习环境的双向建构、“太极运转”中,使中国大学的课堂焕发生命活力。“太极学堂”以“诚信”为本,以信息技术和学习科学为两大杠杆,以促进学习方式变革为目标,是信息时代大学课程与教学创新的孵化器,从中可生长出大学的优秀课程、优秀教师、优秀学生。本文介绍了“太极学堂”工程设计的思路及其在南京大学本科教学创新中的初步探索,提出了“变消费式学习为生产式、创造式学习”的构想,提出了“化整为零”的大学学习评价和网络课程开发之新思路,提出了“零存整取”的高校“学分银行”新模式,形成了21世纪大学课堂教学创新发展的一种整体战略。

【关键词】课堂教学模式;太极学堂;数字化学习;网络课程;学习环境;开放大学;学习方式变革

【中图分类号】G642.0

【文献标识码】A

【文章编号】1007-2179(2012)02-0009-13

【作者简介】桑新民,教授,博士生导师,南京大学教育研究院网络化学习与管理研究所(sxm366@126.com);李曙华,教授,博士生导师,南京大学哲学系;谢阳斌,南京大学网络化学习与管理研究所在读博士。

 

The 21st Century College Classroom:

Concepts and Experiments of "Tai Chi Academy"

 

SANG Xinmin1, LI Shuhua2 & XIE Yangbin1

 

(1.Institute for E-learning and Management, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093,China;

2. Department of Philosophy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093,China)

 

Abstract: The need to reform traditional college classroom teaching and learning can no longer be ignored. This paper analyzes the traditional college classroom, which emerged from the soil of industrialization, and compares them to innovations in college curriculum and learning. Trends in college classroom life show major shifts to a high-efficiency environment that is grounded in information technology and learning science.  Based upon extensive research and experiments in college learning during the emerging information age, the "Tai Chi Academy" inherits and carries forward Chinese traditional culture and educational wisdom, merges the eastern and western university spirits, and absorbs the non-linear concepts and methodology from the sciences.  To achieve the "Tai Chi Academy" requires a Tai Chi Revolution, the bi-directional merging of a brick-and-mortar classroom with a virtual environment that is grounded in learning science. The new Academy with IT and learning science has two levers that drive new learning practices, and which becomes the incubator of reform in college curriculum and instruction.  This paper introduces the design of the "Tai Chi Academy" and its rudimentary exploration in Nanjing University.  This overall reform strategy of 21st century college teaching shifts learning from a consumer orientation to one that emphasizes individual productivity and creativity. The evaluation of learning over time, and the design of web courses is based upon the principle of breaking up the whole into learning parts, and depositing student outcomes in a "lump sum" in credit banks of colleges and universities.

Key words: classroom teaching; Tai Chi Academy; e-learning; web courses; learning environment; open university; reform in college learning

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