袁莉 斯蒂芬·鲍威尔 比尔·奥利弗
[摘要] 当前,MOOC 在全球范围的迅猛发展为高校的教学和在线教育带来了新的挑战和契机。这包括如何改进现有的课堂教学实践,提高高校的声誉和发展运作模式。其中,关键的一点是高校如何利用MOOC 的一些概念、原理和方法来提高传统教育和在线教育的质量,特别是在深入认识和理解MOOC 的基础上,制定新的教育战略,全面发挥数字技术的优势,探索新的商业模式和教学方法。本文从三个方面对今后高校在线教育的发展进行了深入剖析:1)MOOC 催生了在线教学的三个新特征:开放性、营利模式和服务分离;2) 高校应从技术选择、教学法创新和学习者需求三个角度探索MOOC 等在线教学的发展;3) 高校应该积极应对挑战和机遇,调整战略,探索新的商业模式,以促进在线教育的可持续发展。
[基金项目]2014 年陕西师范大学中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目“引入国外MOOC 构建面向研究生的翻转课堂教学模式冶(14SZYB04)。
[作者简介]袁莉,博士,英国博尔顿大学教育控制论研究所高级研究员,英国教育技术、互操作和标准中心(CETIS) 学习技术顾问,研究方向为新技术及其对高等教育的影响(l. yuan@ bolton. ac. uk) ;斯蒂芬·鲍威尔,博士,博尔顿大学教育控制论研究所副教授;比尔·奥利弗,博尔顿大学教育控制论研究所教授;马红亮,博士,陕西师范大学教育学院副教授。
Post-MOOC Era: Sustainable Online Learning in Higher Education
LI Yuan, Stephen Powell & Bill Olivier
(Institute for Educational Cybernetics, University of Bolton,Bolton,UK)
Abstract: The critical discourse emerging around MOOCs is providing an opportunity for institutions to develop a more strategic approach to online learning. This includes enhancing existing classroom teaching, promoting institu-tional reputation and developing new revenue models. The findings from this report are summarised in three sections: key themes that have emerged from the MOOC experiment, opportunities that institutions should consider exploring, and longer-term strategic considerations and likelihood that this will happen for institutions.
Three key themes emerge from the MOOC experiment are:
i. Openness - new approaches to online learning, including models for scalable provision that may generate reve-nues, and promote open learning, which goes beyond institutional boundaries through the use of online communities.
ii. Revenue models - different revenue models taking the established ideas from technology start-ups, such as applying the concepts of freemium and premium offers into online learning, providing institutions with new ways of thinking about marketing and income generation.
iii. Service disaggregation - experimentation with business models that include unbundling and re-bundling of courses and delivery related services, such as offering paid for assessment and / or teaching and support, on top of free online course content.
Institutions should consider exploring a set of opportunities that have been brought to the attention of mainstream education by MOOCs, and experiment with new approaches for developing technology-enabled changes in teaching and learning to improve opportunities for individual learners. These include:
i. Technology options - new platforms and services with different functions, terms and conditions for experimenting with the development of MOOCs and open online provision in institutions, including opening up an existing VLE, partnering with a commercial MOOC platform; or using an ad hoc collection of tools and services that are suitable for innovative experimentation.
ii. Pedagogic opportunities–for educators to experiment and evaluate different online learning approaches by developing and using MOOCs that challenge the established roles of learner and teacher and offer more flexible forms of learning and assessment that include community as well as content-based models of learning.
iii. Learner choices - developing new and affordable ways for learners to access courses and materials with the possibility of study for credits that are affordable and flexible. A starting point that is not based on existing courses can be a less constraining way of exploring new approaches.
Institutions are operating in an environment of increased marketisation and global competition, increasing student demand, reduced central government funding and affordability issues for students. Institutions will have to make strategic choices about how they respond to the changing contexts in which they operate. Depending on the starting point these will have short, medium and long-term implications:
i.Mission, purpose and values - taking full account of the significant wider changes in HEIs’business environments that may require institutions to review how they interpret their mission, purpose and values when developing their strategic response.
ii. Strategic directions - using the new opportunities presented by rethinking MOOCs as a useful motivation for institutions to examine their current provision and think about ways in which they can change and diversify. However, failure to recognise the scale of this challenge may well derail any new strategic directions.
iii. Capability building requirements - reviewing existing in-house capabilities including: technical infrastructure, academic and support staff working practices. If starting from a low base, these will require significant commitment to change and develop, in order to support new business models for online provision.
iv. Business model components - there is an opportunity for institutions to examine their current provision and think about ways in which they can develop new sustainable business models for open online provision that take as their starting point the needs of the learner rather than the interests of the institution.
Key words: MOOCs; online learning; technology approach; pedagogy; business model