李 艳 张慕华
[摘要] 近年来,大规模开放在线课程(MOOCs)受到全球高等教育领域的广泛关注,吸引了各类媒体的大量报道,也引发了许多商业公司的投资兴趣。本研究在对MOOCs 的起源与内涵分析的基础上,系统梳理了当前国内外有代表性的13 个MOOCs 项目,并从内容、工具和实践三个维度进行对比分析,旨在为我国MOOCs 的建设和应用提供借鉴。比较研究发现,国内外有代表性MOOCs 项目:1)推出的课程类型各有侧重,在课程组织方式上表现为有时间节点和无时间节点两种,在课程内容、交互和评估设计三方面也表现出一定异同;2)在工具使用方面大多采用非开源的学习管理系统和主流的社交软件,并致力于各种学习工具的开发;3)在运营方式上尚处于探索阶段,在课程内容版权方面大多未采用知识共享协议,在学生学习结果的认证方面仍以提供证书为主,少数提供学分认证。上述研究结果对我国MOOCs 的建设有三点启示:1)课程设计要以学习者为中心,注重交互和评估设计;2)根据实际情况选用或开发MOOCs 学习管理系统,注重各种工具的开发;3)探索多种运营方式,促进我国MOOCs 项目的可持续发展。
[关键词] 大规模开放在线课程(MOOCs); 内涵;MOOCs 项目;
[作者简介]李艳,浙江大学教育学院教育技术研究所教授,博士生导师(yanli@ zju. edu. cn);张慕华,浙江大学教育学院,博士研究生,研究方向:远程教育及开放教育资源理论与实践。
A Comparative Study of Representative MOOCs
Projects inChinaand Overseas
LI Yan & ZHANG Muhua
(College of Education,ZhejiangUniversity,Hangzhou310028,China)
Abstract: In recent years, massive open online courses (MOOCs) have attracted world wide extensive attentions in the field of higher education. Various types of media made a large number of reports on MOOCs. Many companies also showed their interests in developing and implementing MOOCs. TheUnited Statestook the lead in diffusing MOOCs practice and put forward famous projects such as Udemy, Udacity, Coursera, edX and etc. During the similar time period, some European companies, together with local higher education institutions, launched their own MOOCs projects. The Ministry of Education inChinaand leading Chinese universities are also actively exploring MOOCs with its own features.
This study aims to provide useful experiences and lessons for developing MOOCs inChinathrough reviewing the origin and connotation of MOOCs and comparing 13 representative MOOCs projects in the world. This comparative analysis is conducted from three dimensions: contents, tools, and practice. The 13 selected representative MOOCs projects involved in the study are Udemy、Coursera、Udacity、edX、Canvas Network, FutureLearn、 OpenupEd、 iversity、 ALISON, OpenLearning and Open2Study, ewant and Xuetang online. Among these projects, five are fromAmerica, four from Europe, two fromAustralia, and two fromChina. In the dimension of content, the study compared the 13 projects according to three sub-dimensions: number and types of courses provided by each project, manner of course organization and the main features of course design of these projects. In the dimension of tools, the study compared the 13 projects according to three sub-dimensions: learning management system, tool development, and usage of social software. In the dimension of practice, the study compared the 13 projects according to four sub-dimensions: operators and co-operators of each project, the operating modes of each project, types of copyright protection adopted in the projects, and the availability and the types of course certificates.
The results of the study are as follows. i) First, the number and types of courses provided by each MOOCs project varies a great deal among the 13 selected projects. Some projects provides thousands or hundreds of courses, while others provided courses no more than one hundred. In contrast, Chinese MOOCs projects are still at its starting stage and more Chinese MOOCs are expected to emerge in the near future. As to course type, some projects focuses on science, technology or business-related courses, while others focuses one humanities and social science-related courses. There are two typical manners of course organization: time-bounded or no time-bounded. There are also similarities and differences among these 13 projects in the design of course content, interaction, and assessment. ii) Second, in terms of tool usage, most of the projects don't open the source codes of their learning management systems, while all of the 13 projects adopts one or more mainstream social software, such as blog, facebook, twitter, google+, Wiki, weixin, weibo, and etc. In addition, many of the 13 projects developed a variety of online instructional or learning tools for instructors, learners or their target companies. iii) Third, most projects are still in the initial stage of implementation and most of them have not adopted the Creative Commons (CC) for the copyright of course content. As to credits and certificates, most of the MOOCs would provide course certificates when learners successfully complete their courses and only a few of projects would offer credit certificates. Based on these findings, we propose strategies for the construction of Chinese MOOCs. i) First, course design should be learner-centered and designers should pay special attention to interaction and evaluation design for MOOCs' participants. ii) Second, developing or selecting learning management system should consider MOOCs providers' resources and there need to be a variety of online learning tools. iii) Third, Chinese institutions need to explore the operation models of various MOOCs and to seek a sustainable in developing MOOCs.
Key words: MOOCs; connotation; MOOCs projects; comparison; revelation