多媒体学习的认知体系*

 

斯蒂芬·K·里德

 

(圣地亚哥州立大学 数学与科学教育研究中心,美国)

 

【摘要】本文对主要的认知体系进行了概述,据此可以形成多媒体教学设计的理论基础。这些认知体系包括对记忆存储、记忆编码以及认知操作的描述。与多媒体学习相关的认知体系有Paivio的双重编码理论、Baddeley的工作记忆模型、Engelkamp的多模块理论、Sweller的认知负荷理论、Mayer的多媒体学习理论以及Nathan的动画理论。本文重点讨论传统研究和教学应用之间的交互作用,教学应用主要涉及如何增加回忆率、减少干扰、降低认知负荷以及加强理解等方面。得出的初步结论是:虽然各自有所侧重,不同的理论之间仍有一些共性;这些模型中缺乏对学习者多元编码整合作用的研究;在心理模拟足够的情况下并不需要动画教学;动作必须有意义才能有效果;多模块教学比单个不同的特定模块更加有效。

【关键词】多媒体学习;短时记忆;长时记忆;多元编码

【中图分类号】G442

【文献标识码】A

【文章编号】1007-2179200803-0028-09

【作者简介】斯蒂芬·K·里德(Stephen K. Reed),博士,教授,美国圣地亚哥州立大学数学与科学教育研究中心主要成员,在研究问题解决过程中的认知加工过程以及根据研究结果指导更为有效的教学设计方面颇有建树。

【译校者简介】张静,在读硕士,杭州师范大学心理学系(jingzhang@zj165.com)。丁峻,教授,杭州师范大学心理学系硕士生导师。

 

*本文英文版发表在《教育心理学家》(Educational Psychologist)41卷第287-98页,经作者本人授权翻译成中文。

 

 

Cognitive Architectures for Multimedia Learning

 

Stephen K. Reed

 

Center for Research in Mathematics and Science Education,

San Diego State University, USA

 

Abstract: This article provides a tutorial overview of cognitive architectures that can form a theoretical foundation for designing multimedia instruction. Cognitive architectures include a description of memory stores, memory codes, and cognitive operations. Architectures that are relevant to multimedia learning include Paivio's dual coding theory, Baddeley's working memory model, Engelkamp's multimodal theory, Sweller's cognitive load theory,Mayer's multimedia learning theory, and Nathan's ANIMATE theory. The discussion emphasizes the interplay between traditional research studies and instructional applications of this research for increasing recall, reducing interference, minimizing cognitive load, and enhancing understanding. Tentative conclusions are that (a) there is general agreement among the different architectures, which differ in focus; (b) learners' integration of multiple codes is underspecified in the models; (c) animated instruction is not required when mental simulations are sufficient; (d) actions must be meaningful to be successful; and (e) multimodal instruction is superior to targeting modalityspecific individual differences.

Key wordsmultimedia learning;STM;LTM;multiple representations

 

 

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